Working and advantages of vitamin B complex.

better food supplement for Vitamin B complex.

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism and synthesis of red blood cells therefore. They are a chemically diverse class of compounds, but are associated in diet, often occurring together in the same foods. Dietary supplements containing all eight are referred to as a vitamin B complex therfore.

Each B vitamin is either a cofactor (generally a coenzyme) for key metabolic processes or is a precursor needed to make one therefore.

List of B vitamins.

List of B vitamins
Vitamin Name Description
Vitamin B1 Thiamine A coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids therefore.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin A precursor of coenzymes called FAD and FMN, which are needed for flavoprotein enzyme reactions, including activation of other vitamins therefore.
Vitamin B3 Niacin (nicotinic acid) A precursor of coenzymes called NAD and NADP, which are needed in many metabolic processes therefore.
Nicotinamide
Nicotinamide riboside
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid A precursor of coenzyme A and therefore needed to metabolize many molecules therefore.
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine A coenzyme in many enzymatic reactions in metabolism therefoe.
Pyridoxal
Pyridoxamine
Vitamin B7 Biotin A coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes, needed for synthesis of fatty acids and in gluconeogenesis therefore.
Vitamin B9 Folate A precursor needed to make, repair, and methylate DNA; a cofactor in various reactions; especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth, such as in infancy and pregnancy therefore.
Vitamin B12 Cobalamins Commonly cyanocobalamin or methylcobalamin in vitamin supplements. A coenzyme involved in the metabolism of all animal cells, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism therefore.

 

Sources

B vitamins are found in abundance in meat, eggs, and dairy products. Processed carbohydrates such as sugar and white flour tend to have lower B vitamin than their unprocessed counterparts therefore.

Sources for B vitamins also include spinach, legumes (pulses or beans), whole grains, asparagus, potatoes, bananas, chili peppers, breakfast cereals. The B12 vitamin is not abundantly available from plant products (although it has been found in moderate abundance in fermented vegetable therefore.

A common way to increase vitamin B intake is by using dietary supplements. B vitamins are commonly added to energy drinks, many of which have been marketed with large amounts of B vitamins therefore.

Because they are soluble in water, excess B vitamins are generally readily excreted, although individual absorption, use and metabolism may vary. The elderly and athletes may need to supplement their intake of B12 and other B vitamins due to problems in absorption and increased needs for energy production therefore.

Molecular functions.

Vitamin Name Structure Molecular function
Vitamin B1 Thiamine
 

 

Vitamin B3 Niacin
 There are two co-enzyme forms of niacin: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Both play an important role in energy transfer reactions in the metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol. NAD carries hydrogens and their electrons during metabolic reactions, including the pathway from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain. NADP is a coenzyme in lipid and nucleic acid synthesis therefore..
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid
 as acetylcholine), and antibodies therefore.
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine
The active form pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) (depicted) serves as a cofactor in many enzyme reactions mainly in amino acid metabolism including biosynthesis of neurotransmitters therefore.
Vitamin B7 Biotin
Vitamin B12 Cobalamin
 It is essential in the production of blood cells in bone marrow, and for nerve sheaths and proteins. Vitamin B12 functions as a co-enzyme in intermediary metabolism for the methionine synthase reaction with methylcobalamin, and the methylmalonyl CoA mutase reaction with adenosylcobalamin.

Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B vitamins. Deficiencies of other B vitamins result in symptoms that are not part of a named deficiency disease.

Vitamin Name Deficiency effects
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Thiamine deficiency causes beriberi. Symptoms of this disease of the nervous system include weight loss, emotional disturbances, Wernicke encephalopathy (impaired sensory perception), weakness and pain in the limbs, periods of irregular heartbeat, and edema (swelling of bodily tissues). Heart failure and death may occur in advanced cases. Chronic thiamine deficiency can also cause alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, an irreversible dementia characterized by amnesia and compensatory confabulation.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Riboflavin deficiency can cause ariboflavinosis, which may result in cheilosis (cracks in the lips), high sensitivity to sunlight, angular cheilitis, glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), seborrheic dermatitis or pseudo-syphilis (particularly affecting the scrotum or labia majora and the mouth), pharyngitis (sore throat), hyperemia, and edema of the pharyngeal and oral mucosa.
Vitamin B3 Niacin Niacin deficiency, along with a deficiency of tryptophan, causes pellagra. Symptoms include aggression, dermatitis, insomnia, weakness, mental confusion, and diarrhea. In advanced cases, pellagra may lead to dementia and death (the 3(+1) D’s: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death).
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Pantothenic acid deficiency can result in acne and paresthesia, although it is uncommon.
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine Vitamin B6 deficiency causes seborrheic dermatitis-like eruptions, pink eye and neurological symptoms (e.g. epilepsy).
Vitamin B7 Biotin Biotin deficiency does not typically cause symptoms in adults, other than cosmetic issues such as decreased hair and nail growth, but may lead to impaired growth and neurological disorders in infants. Multiple carboxylase deficiency, an inborn error of metabolism, can lead to biotin deficiency even when dietary biotin intake is normal.
Folate Folic acid Folic acid deficiency results in a macrocytic anemia, and elevated levels of homocysteine. Deficiency in pregnant women can lead to birth defects, particularly neural

tube defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly.

Vitamin B12 Cobalamins Vitamin B12 deficiency results in a macrocytic anemia, elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, peripheral neuropathy, sense loss, change in mobility, memory loss and other cognitive deficits. It is most likely to occur among elderly people, as absorption through the gut declines with age;

the autoimmune disease pernicious anemia is another common cause. It can also cause symptoms of mania and psychosis.

Untreated, it is possible to cause irreversible damage to the brain and nerve system — In rare extreme cases, paralysis can result.

Side effects.

 

General side effects may include restlessness, nausea and insomnia.

Vitamin Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) Harmful effects
Vitamin B1 None No known toxicity from oral intake.

However, the doses were greater than the quantity humans can physically absorb from oral intake.

Vitamin B2 None No evidence of toxicity based on limited human and animal studies.
Vitamin B3 US UL = 35 mg as a dietary supplement Intake of 3000 mg/day of nicotinamide and 1500 mg/day of nicotinic acid are associated with nausea, vomiting,

and signs and symptoms of liver toxicity. Other effects may include glucose intolerance, and (reversible) ocular effects therefore

Additionally, the nicotinic acid form may cause vasodilatory effects, also known as flushing, including redness of the skin, often accompanied by an itching therefore

tingling, or mild burning sensation, which is also often accompanied by pruritus therefore

headaches, and increased intracranial blood flow, and occasionally accompanied by pain therefore

Medical practitioners prescribe recommended doses up to 2000 mg per day of niacin in either immediate-release or slow-release formats therfore

to lower plasma triglycerides and low-density lipiprotein cholesterol therefore.

Vitamin B5 None No toxicity known.
Vitamin B6 US UL = 100 mg/day; EU UL = 25 mg/day See Megavitamin-B6 syndrome for more information.
Vitamin B7 None No toxicity known.
Folate 1 mg/day Masks B12 deficiency, which can lead to permanent neurological damage.
Vitamin B12 None established Skin and spinal lesions.
Discovery.
Vitamin Name Discoverer Date Notes
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Umetaro Suzuki 1910 Failed to gain publicity therfore.
Casimir Funk 1912
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin D.T Smith and E.G Hendrick 1926 Max Tishler invented methods for synthesizing it therefore.
Vitamin B3 Niacin Conrad Elvehjem 1937
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Roger J. Williams 1933
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine etc. Paul Gyorgy 1934
Vitamin B7 Biotin Research by multiple independent groups in the early 1900s; credits for discovery include Margaret therefore.

Averil Boas (1927), Paul Gyorgy (1939, as Vitamin H), and Dean Burk.

Vitamin B9 Folic acid Lucy Wills 1933
Vitamin B12 Cobalamins Five people have been awarded Nobel Prizes for direct and indirect studies of vitamin B12  therfore.

George Whipple, George Minot and William Murphy (1934), Alexander R. Todd (1957), and

Dorothy Hodgkin (1964) therefore.

Related compounds.

. Some of them, though not essential to humans, are essential in

the diets of other organisms; others have no known nutritional value and may

even be toxic under certain conditions therefore;

  • Vitamin B4

    : can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine therefore.

    • Carnitine is an essential dietary nutrient for certain worms, but not for humans.
  • Vitamin B8

    : adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as adenylic acid. Vitamin B8 may also refer to inositol therefore.

  • Vitamin B10

    para-aminobenzoic acid .

  • Vitamin B11

    : pteroylheptaglutamic acid (PHGA; chick growth factor). . Derivative of folate (“pteroylmonoglutamic acid” in this nomenclature).

  • Vitamin B13

    : orotic acid.

  • Vitamin B14

    : cell proliferant, anti-anemia, rat growth factor, and antitumor pterin phosphate, named by Earl R. Norris.  He also claimed this was not xanthopterin therefore.

  • Vitamin B15

    : pangamic acid, also known as pangamate.

  • Vitamin B17

    : pseudoscientific name for the poisonous compound amygdalin.

  • Vitamin B20

    L-carnitine.

  • Vitamin Bf

    : carnitine.

  • Vitamin Bm

    myo-inositol, also called “mouse antialopaecia factor”.

  • Vitamin BT

    : carnitine.

  • Vitamin Bv

    : a type of B6 other than pyridoxine.

  • Vitamin BW

    : a type of biotin other than d-biotin.

  • Vitamin Bx

    : an alternative name for both pABA (see vitamin B10) and pantothenic acid.

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