how make body strong and healthy

Physical fitness is achieved through exercise, among other factors. Photo shows Rich Frowning Jr., four-time winner of Fittest Man on Earth” title.

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

Physical fitness is generally achieved through strong and healthy proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest along with a formal recovery plan.

Before the Industrial Revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue or lethargy.

However, with automation and changes in lifestyles, physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities,

to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, improve immune system and to meet emergency situations strong and healthy 


Fitness is defined as the quality or state of being fit and healthy. Around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term “fitness” increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten.

The modern definition of fitness describes either a person or machine’s ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations.

This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and physical attractiveness that has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries. Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to persons who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability (i.e., endurance or strength).

A well-rounded fitness program improves a person in all aspects of fitness compared to practicing only one, such as only cardio/respiratory or only weight training.

The 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to provide science-based guidance for people ages 3 years and older to improve their health by participating in regular physical activity.

These guidelines recommend that all adults should move more and sit less throughout the day to improve health-related quality of life including mental, emotional, and physical health.

For substantial health benefits, adults should perform at least 150 to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity, or 75 to 150 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both spread throughout the week.

The recommendation for physical activity to occur in bouts of at least 10 minutes has been eliminated, as new research suggests that bouts of any length contribute to the health benefits linked to the accumulated volume of physical activity.

Additional health benefits may be achieved by engaging in more than 300 minutes (5 hours) of moderate-intensity physical activity per week

. Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that are of moderate or greater intensity and involve all major muscle groups on two or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits.

Guidelines in the United Kingdom released in July 2011 include the following points: The intensity at which a person exercises is key,

and light activity such as strolling and house work is unlikely to have much positive impact on the health of most people.

For aerobic exercise to be beneficial, it must raise the heart rate and cause perspiration. A person should do a minimum of 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise.

There are more health benefits gained if a person exercises beyond 150 minutes. Sedentary time (time spent not standing, such as when on a chair or in bed) is bad for a person’s health,

and no amount of exercise can negate the effects of sitting for too long. These guidelines are now much more in line with those used in the U.S., which also includes recommendations for muscle-building and bone-strengthening activities such as lifting weights and yoga.


Aerobic exercise

aerobic exercise
Playing sports such as lawn tennis is a common way to maintain/improve physical fitness. Image shows international tennis player Barbora Strýcová strong and healthy 

. Aerobic exercise, which improves cardiorespiratory fitness and increase stamina, involves movement that increases the heart rate to improve the body’s oxygen consumption. This form of exercise is an important part of all training regiments, whether for professional athletes or for the everyday person.

Prominent examples of aerobic exercises include:

  • Jogging – Running at a steady and gentle pace. This form of exercise is great for maintaining weight and building a cardiovascular base to later perform more intense exercises.
  • . This form of exercise is perfect for people with achy hips, knees, and ankles.
  • Walking – Moving at a fairly regular pace for a short, medium or long distance.
  • Treadmill training – Many treadmills have programs set up that offer numerous different workout plans. One effective cardiovascular activity would be to switch between running and walking. Typically warm up first by walking and then switch off between walking for three minutes and running for three minutes.
  • Swimming – Using the arms and legs to keep oneself afloat in water and moving either forwards or backward. This is a good full-body exercise for those who are looking to strengthen their core while improving cardiovascular endurance strong and healthy .
  • Cycling – Riding a bicycle typically involves longer distances than walking or jogging. This is another low-impact exercise on the joints and is great for improving leg strength.

Anaerobic exercise

anaerobic exercise
another type of anaerobic exercise
A man and a woman doing weight training at a health club.

Anaerobic exercise features high-intensity movements performed in a short period of time. It is a fast, high-intensity exercise that does not require the body to utilize oxygen to produce energy.

Prominent examples of anaerobic exercises include:

  • Weight training – A common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles.
  • Isometric exercise – Helps to maintain strength. A muscle action in which no visible movement occurs and the resistance matches the muscular tension.
  • Sprinting – Running short distances as fast as possible, training for muscle explosiveness.
  • Interval training – Alternating short bursts (lasting around 30 seconds) of intense activity with longer intervals (three to four minutes) of less intense activity. This type of activity also builds speed and endurance.



Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person’s ability to perform in a specific activity,

such as sports or military service, with a reasonable efficiency. Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sport. These include, among others:

swimming training
Swimmers in competitive swimwear perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U.S. military base, 2011.Middle distance running: Athletes require both speed and endurance to gain benefit out of this training. 
  • Many firefighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing
  •  to determine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job.
  • . For example, soldiers of the U.S. Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT).
  • Hill sprints: Requires a high level of fitness to begin with; the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles. The Army often trains to do mountain climbing and races.
  • Plyometric and isometric exercises: An excellent way to build strength and increase muscular endurance.
  • Sand running creates less strain on leg muscles than running on grass or concrete. This is because sand collapses beneath the foot, which softens the landing. 
  • Aqua jogging is a form of exercise that decreases strain on joints and bones. The water supplies minimal impact to muscles and bones, which is good for those recovering from injury. Furthermore, the resistance of the water as one jogs through it provides an enhanced effect of exercise
  • (the deeper you are, the greater the force needed to pull your leg through).
  • Swimming: Squatting exercise helps in enhancing a swimmer’s start.

For physical fitness activity to benefit an individual, the exertion must trigger a sufficient amount of stimuli. Exercise with the correct amount of intensity, duration, and frequency can produce a significant amount of improvement. The person may overall feel better, but the physical effects on the human body take weeks or months to notice

and possibly years for full development. For training purposes, exercise must provide a stress or demand on either a function or tissue. To continue improvements, this demand must eventually increase little over an extended period of time. This sort of exercise training has three basic principles: overload, specificity, and progression. These principles are related to health but also enhancement of physical working capacity strong and healthy .

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